Mean climate and variability of an idealized “aqua-planet”.
(Marshall, John and Ferreira, D. and Campin, J. -M and Enderton, D.), BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY, vol. 88, no. 12, pp. pages, 2007.
It is very difficult to identify controlling mechanisms behind climate and climate variability because there is a myriad of drivers acting on a vast range of time scales that, due to nonlinearities and feedbacks, do not superpose. As a result, it is all but impossible to carry out “what if” experiments even with observations. Moreover, climate models have to represent key processes parametrically and are used almost exclusively in “simulation and projection” mode rather than for asking mechanistic questions.